‘Blanket licences’ are used by collecting societies to provide general permissions or consents covering a period of time for the use of a type of media. The CLA licence covers schools for print and digital reproduction of text and still images from books,magazines, periodicals and journals, as well as 'opted-in' digital material like websites and shares the revenues collected between publishers, authors and visual artists. The ERA licence covers schools for copying most programmes broadcast in the UK and re-distributes the revenue collected to the programme makers and contributors.
The definitions applied to the terms ‘curricular’, ‘non-curricular’ and ‘public’ are more restricted than their everyday use in schools. ‘The Public’ can mean events in school if anyone other than those immediately responsible for teaching or care are present and that includes an assembly with parents or pupils from another school being present. The term ‘curricular’ is applied to curriculum subjects and may not cover school activities such as clubs or other social education. The term 'non-curricular' is applied to activities like clubs and lunchtime activities.
Licence purchase. Licences can be purchased through agreements with:
CLA agreements. In England, all state-maintained schools are covered by the CLA Licence and the Schools Printed Music Licence via an agreement with the Department for Education, and in Northern Ireland through a similar agreement with the Belfast Education and Library Board. In Scotland and Wales, state-maintained schools are licensed through their Local Authority. Both licences for independent schools can be arranged through the Independent Association of Prep Schools and, in Scotland, SCIS.
The CEFM manages three licences for schools:
The PRS for Music and PPL licences can cover “public performances” and “non-curricular activity” including playing to parents and friends. The PVS licence covers children and teachers and is often used for film-clubs. The PRS for Music and PPL licences work together for many activities and most schools now have the CEFM (PRS for Music and PPL) blanket licence in place but the PVSL is more commonly purchased by a school for a particular need such as screening a film as an event or for an after-school film club.
The proliferation of new technologies has seen an increase in the number of additional licences needed to deal with the different channels for publishing to, sharing amongst or communicating with an audience. To work out which licence you need you may need to know:
A look at the variety of on-line licences there are available through the ‘PRS for music’ website indicates the need for careful appraisal of your needs and good information.
Established licences such as ‘ERA’ and ‘CLA’ have extended their services to keep up with digital developments. For instance ‘ERA’ introduced ‘ERA Plus Licence’ to enable recorded programmes to be used for ‘distance learning’ by teachers and pupils - through a VLE or at home for instance - and ‘CLA’ includes copying from digital originals by including scanning, emailing, or posting content on a VLE, in addition to photo-copying and the licence covers published formats such as websites, e-books and CDs produced by the publishers it represents. ERA licences are relevant to some new applications, such as those enabling video streaming across the school network, that are available to schools
List of UK Licensing organisations
To understand the exact nature of each licence and its latest news it is best to go direct to the organisation website.
:: CLA or the Copyright Licensing Agency covers print and digital reproduction of text and still images – ‘all’ schools have the licence. It covers books,magazines, periodicals and journals, as well as 'opted-in' digital material like websites - i.e. websites of those companies, including many education publishers who have 'opted-in' to the CLA scheme. There is a full description of the current licence at http://schools.cla.co.uk
:: ERA or the Educational Recording Agency licences off-air educational copying of broadcast material and most schools/LAs have licences in place. The main ERA Licence requires acknowledgement and labelling for the hard copies that are made on tape or DVD. Satellite broadcasts may be recorded either because their programmes fall under the ERA Licence or because they are covered by CDPA 'exceptions'. There is a full description of the Licence with a good FAQ section on the ERA website at http://www.era.org.uk/ Details of the ERA Plus Licence can also be found on this website
:: CEFM or the Centre for Education & Finance Management is the collection agent in the UK schools sector for PRS for music (music performance), PPL (pre-recorded music), and PVSL(film screening) licences for schools. Both PRS and PPL licences are required for playing pre-recorded music in a school. Additional licences are required to electronically transfer music to another school, across an intranet or through the WWW and across intranets. For more information see http://www.cefm.co.uk
:: On-line licences: A PRS online licence and a PPL online licence may be required if you, for instance, put pre-recorded music on-line in a website – even if it is within a film. The key point is that it is the organisation hosting the materials who need to apply to PRS http://www.prs.co.uk/ Some major social networking sites and some education services already have the PRS online licence in place and in that case the school shouldn’t need to get one itself.
On-line licencing is an outcome of the digital revolution and is still in its early days buit as schools increasingly use ICT in more sophisticated ways to communicate beyond the school the more on-line licencing will need to be considered.
:: MPA: The Music Publishers Association for permission to photocopy sheet music outside the terms of the SPML. Plays or musicals such as ‘Joseph’ or ‘Grease’ are owned by music companies and a school has to contact them directly to arrange a performing licence; MPA can help locate the company. http://www.mpaonline.org.uk
:: PMLL: The Printed Music Licensing Ltd, the licensing arm of the MPA that provides the Schools Printed Music Licence (SPML). It is available exclusively through CLA and covers schools to copy, in most cases, entire works of their printed sheet music.
:: MCPS: The Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society (Mechanical as in old days of making records) …but now meaning recording performance onto CD or DVD. As with PRS schools will need to consider this in the future if they want to make DVDs of the school play to sell to parents or, perhaps, enter digital work into an Arts Festival. http://www.mcps.co.uk
:: DACS: Design and Artist Copyright Society for artists, designers. It covers a lot of the images released for reviews, etc for big exhibitions. The website has a good introductory section about 'copyright'. http://www.dacs.org.uk/
The Newspaper Licensing Agency provides licences and services to the commercial and public sector for both print and e-publishing. It represents most national and over a 100 regional newpapers in the UK. It has a no-charge school sector service ‘Newspapers for Schools’, which provides "copyright compliant" use of newspapers through:
Newspapers for Schools is a free service; schools register and provide feedback on the use of the service.
:: OS: ordnance survey. The OS provides a very wide range of maps and mapping services. Most Local Authorities in the UK have Map Service Agreement (MSA) licences for the use of maps in school and their other services such as Libraries. Sometimes the maps and map data are made available through a GIS’ or“graphic information systems” service.
For more information about OS education services http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/education/
There are links to other OS services such as OS and GIS services, Local Authority Licences and free outline maps of UK counties
Some OS map data is freely available as part of the UK government’s ‘Open Data’ initiative. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/opendata/ although users will still need an application to access and use the data.
Maps from other sources than the OS in the UK or from other countries have their own copyrights and sometimes licence arrangements.
:: UK Intellectual Property Office (UK IPO) maintains a page listing links to Organisations representing copyright owners at http://www.ipo.gov.uk/copy/c-manage/c-ownerorg.htm
:: Copyright and Schools is a working group comprising members from various Collecting Societies (or CMOs) that operate in the schools sector. Their website is designed to help school staff who wish to use copyright content for school activities, providing information about what content is covered under each licence and guidance on where to go for specific information. www.copyrightandschools.org
There are licencing organisations in many other countries working in similar ways to those in the UK. There are sometimes reciprocal arrangements between licensing organisations in different countries to support global publishing, performance and re-use of materials.
PRS for music
CLA photocopying, scanning and some websites
CEFM: PRS and PPL playing pre-recorded music
MPA: musicals and sheet music
MCPS: making DVD, CD, etc.
DACS: copyright art and exhibition images
NLA: copying newspapers
Newspapers for Schools
OS or Ordnance Survey
OS education maps and map data.
OS and Open Data
UK IP Office, list of Licensing organisations.
At-a-Glance Guide to Copyright Licensing in Schools